Characterization of essential oils of citrus fruits
Daniel L. R. Simas, Silésia Helena Barboteu Martins de Amorim, Júlia Mouta de Oliveira, Daniela Sales Alviano & Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva
The content and chemical composition of essential oils of 11 species, totalizing 11 varieties of citrus fruits purchased in retail trade in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were determined. The extraction of essential oils was performed by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus. The identification of the components of the oils was carried out by gas phase chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, whereas the quantitation was performed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest yield of extraction was Citrus sinensis var. Seleta with 2.87% (m/m) and the lowest was C. limettioides with 0.28% (m/m). Limonene, the main component in citrus oils ranged from 96.50% (C. limettioides) to 43.52% (C. aurantifolia). Multivariate analysis of sets of analytical data of each sample were performed in order to group them according to their chemical composition. Two groups resulted from this analysis, and the division into groups was strongly influenced by limonene content in the analyzed samples.